What are the stages of in vitro fertilization?
- What is in vitro fertilization ?
- In vitro fertilization is an assisted reproductive technology that is modern, safe and already routine.
- What is the clinical indication for in vitro fertilization?
Clinical indications for in vitro fertilization are infertility and genetic analysis of embryos.
- What does in vitro fertilization mean?
- At this time, the egg and sperm merge not in the fallopian tube, but in laboratory conditions, where a safe and effective environment is created for the embryo.
- What is infertility ?
- If the woman’s age is <35 years and a year of regular, unprotected intercourse does not result in pregnancy, the couple is considered infertile. And if the woman’s age is >35 years, this period is reduced to 6 months.
- What kind of infertility is there?
- The reason for infertility can be in men, when the sperm is not full-fledged, and in women, when any structure of the reproductive tract fails to perform its physiological function. There is also infertility of unknown etiology.
- What are the stages of in vitro fertilization ?
- First, the ovary is prepared, namely its stimulation, in order to grow follicles and mature eggs. When the follicles reach the threshold, a special catheter is inserted into each follicle and the follicular fluid is collected. The fluid is sent to a laboratory to look for eggs. After finding them, the egg is fertilized with sperm.
- How does fertilization occur?
There are two ways of fertilization. First, when the in vitro fertilization process is identical to the natural one. Thousands of sperm are trying to penetrate the egg. and the second, when the embryologist artificially injects one sperm into the cytoplasm of the egg (ICSI).
- When is the embryo transferred to the uterine cavity?
After fertilization, a zygote is formed. The zygote reaches the morula stage by the third day of development, and the blastocyst stage by the fifth day. It is on the third and fifth days that the embryo is transferred to the uterine cavity.
- What happens if it is not desired to transfer the embryo into the uterine cavity?
The embryo is frozen and stored until the uterus is prepared.
- How is the embryo frozen?
There are two methods of cryopreservation: the “slow-freezing” technique and vitrification (conversion of water into a solid state by very rapid freezing without crystal formation).
- Which method of cryopreservation is preferred?
Vitrification is preferred because the incidence of embryo damage is lower.
- Is it possible to freeze sperm or eggs independently?
It is possible, but it is preferable to freeze the embryo, because the probability of damage to the embryo during the process of freezing and thawing is very low.
- What types of embryo genetic analysis are there?
Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases (PGT-M) , PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC TESTING FOR STRUCTURAL CHROMOSOME CHANGES (PGT-SR) AND PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC TESTING FOR ANEUPLOIDY (PGT-A) .